Man Animal Conflict

Human Animal conflict

Posted by Katidhan Tech on April 02, 2020

 
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Human -Tiger Conflicts

Whenever wild animal populations survive and come into contact with landscapes dominated by humans, they pose a threat by preying on livestock less commonly on people. In most parts of India, people are remarkably tolerant of wildlife damage compared with elsewhere in the world, but sometimes, in conflict situations, local antagonism against tigers often erupts into a serious problem.

What Causes Conflicts?

*Killing of Livestock 

Tiger attack is an extreme form of human-wildlife conflict that occurs for various reasons and has claimed more human lives than attacks by any of the other big cats. The most comprehensive study of deaths due to tiger attacks estimates that at least 373,000 people died due to tiger attacks between 1800 and 2009, the majority of these attacks occurring in South and Southeast Asia.

Tigers readily kill domestic ungulates as they enter farmer land, government-owned forest in search of food and damage livestock in a larger margin

*Accidental killing of humans

In most places, tigers are wary of human beings and avoid encounters. Accidental mauling or killing of humans by tigers is rare and usually occurs when angry mobs surround tigers that enter human settlements to take livestock.

*Man-eating behavior

Although infrequent,  

it has been historically documented in parts of India that individual tigers begin to view human beings as a ‘prey species’ and persistently stalk them. The ecological and social factors that lead to man-eating are not scientifically proven, but appear to be influenced by distinct factors. Man-eating behavior is exhibited in an unusually persistent form among the tigers of the Sundarban delta.

Tigers are afraid of bears, fire, electric fences and so on…

⦁ Afraid of FIRE

Tigers are naturally afraid of fire. This means that they are more afraid of being punished by their trainers than they are of the flames.

2. Afraid of bears: 

Tigers are generally at the top of the food chain and classified as the apex predators, so they are not afraid of any other animal. One exception to this is the case of tigers living in the range of particular bear species, as they sometimes are killed by bears when competing for food or disputing a kill.

3.Electric fences killing tigers:

Homemade electrical fencing is used by some villages to preserve their crops from animals such as wild boar. Without the resources to purchase safety equipment, villagers strip wire of its protective plastic, creating a live wire that sends out dangerously high voltages. This has not only killed local wildlife but has also reportedly caused the death of local people.

4. Solar fencing: solar fencing includes mild current pass through connected body by completing entire circuit here in this scenario many animals are hurt as is this unscientific way of solving issue

5.Message Alert System:

When an object or animal touches the fence, the electric circuit is completed by connecting to the ground, resulting in a short electric shock, which passes through the object or animal. The solar fencing system is popular and sought a system for protecting premises for Agriculture, Security or High-security applications.

Whenever the tiger crosses through the sensory device that is placed on the farm. That device sends an alert message to the owner after which the owner will either arrive and secure his farm or move away from harm’s place.

                   The above method can be used to deter away from the tiger from the agricultural land. However, most of them involve manual efforts that are invasive in nature. Apart from the above, we can use technological products for the tigers that can deter them away and noninvasive in nature.

Most Recent incident from Maharashtra: Click below.     

https://zeenews.india.com/kannada/india/video-man-was-attacked-by-tiger-what-next-22794

Flashing of lights: Tigers have a structure at the back of the eye behind the retina called the tapetum lucid um that enables them to have better night vision. The tapes tum lucid um causes their eyes to glow at night when a light is shone on them.

       Tigers have more rods (responsible for visual acuity for shapes) in their eyes than cones (responsible for color vision) to assist with their night vision. The increased number of rods allows them to detect movement of prey in darkness where color vision would not be useful. In general, cats require only about 1/6 the light humans do to see.

Parabraksh is one of a kind solar-powered autonomous flashing light system that is conceptualized and made in India. The product is environmentally friendly and it has a dual charging mechanism –solar and Micro-USB charging with an indicator LED lights.

Please contact us at info@katidhan.com for more information or reach us on the following links:

Website: https://katidhan.com/

YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTv9k4aiKT8Onv2JJ-iSsZA

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Linkedin:   https://www.linkedin.com/com HYPERLINK "https://www.linkedin.com/company/katidhan/"pany/katidhan/

 

Man Animal Conflict

Wild Boar Attacks on Farms causing huge Croplosses

Posted by Katidhan Tech on April 02, 2020

 
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Wild boar is the utmost communal native species of wildlife that bring about large injuries to plants. Wild boar is an important factor and a particular concern to the agricultural industry regarding crops and frosts damage along with its alleviating tactics. Wild boar may destroy the agricultural crops by crushing or eating of plants. Likewise, these may harm to crops while wallowing and rooting which injury to plant roots, and form holes and grooves that harm farm equipment and endanger operations. Wild boar injury is more in fields that are in neighboring vicinity of forests ranges. Wild boars harshly influence trees and timber resources in many ways like disturbance of planted seedlings, girdling and rubbing of matured trees, chewing and rooting of sideway roots of fully-fledged trees, and tusking or scent marking with the tusk glands that injuries to tree bark. 

Mitigation strategies for wild boar losses comprise the creation of education and awareness among persons, co-operative securing of matured crops and use of local protective methods. Wild boar can be managed through small-scale exclusion, trapping and shooting tactics. Shooting is a popular method of controlling wild boar populations and in this way, pressure from hunting will let the pest to move away from where they are hunted, or at a minimum, will restrict their movements. It has been found that using dogs is the most effective for locating individuals or smaller groups of wild boars. In some cases, a female boar is trapped, spayed fitted with a radio collar and then released in the field. Since female boars live in groups, the spayed female will lead wildlife managers to local boar populations, which can assist in population control efforts. While recreational hunting is often a preferred method, it is also effective to some extent at controlling wild boar population growth. Trapping, however, is highly effective at controlling and reducing of boar’s population growth. The study of a spatiotemporal variant of boar-inflicted losses and recognition of reasons which boost the risk of harm delivers necessary facts for contributing to developing a further effectual strategy for handling of wild boar’s density.

The occurrence of crop damage by wild boars raised dramatically in the last decades, implying an increase in social conflicts, expenditures for compensation and a risk to natural ecosystems. Many researchers have explained this phenomenon by considering wild boar biology, behavior, and abundance. Little or no attention has been devoted to wildlife management and the agricultural mosaic. We hypothesized that the agricultural structure of the landscape and wildlife management planning, including hunting, can play a relevant role in causing crop damage.

Agricultural Damage

Feral pigs can damage agricultural crops by eating or trampling them.

They can also damage crops while rooting and wallowing which

*damages plant roots

*creates holes and ruts that can damage farm equipment and endanger operators

Wild pigs are a serious pest to crops cultivated in areas near the jungle. The wild pig is an intelligent animal. It is also prolific, has an excellent smell, sight, and hearing, and is highly adaptable. As an omnivore, a wild pig will eat anything. Wild pigs sleep during the day and are active at night.

They cause huge losses to farmers, as their attacks on crops are unexpected and damaging. An attack on a cornfield at the tasselling stage can wipe out 50% of the standing plants. Control measures such as fencing, baiting, and traps are practiced but are not very effective. In Malaysia, farmers are now using coconut fruit bunches to deter wild pigs from entering cultivated areas.

 

The current methodology that farmers are using to stop crop losses

1.Placing Dried Coconut bunches with coconut fruits

This new method of controlling wild pigs is based on placing a physical deterrent around a tree or where the pigs are thought to enter the field. The best deterrent is coconut fruit bunches together with dried coconut leaves ( As in the above pictures)

*Several coconut fruit bunches are tied together, with the fingers pointing outward.

*The tied-up bunches are placed around the base of a plant, or the probable point of entry to a field. Be sure that the fingers of the coconut fruit bunches are pointing outwards The fingers will hurt the nose or eyes of wild pigs if they attempt to dig the roots of the plant 

Merits of the Technology

This method is simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly. Farmers can easily learn it with a simple demonstration.

2.Human Hair as Deterrent

Wild boar with poorly developed sight and hearing mechanism has to depend on its smell sensory mechanism only for movement as well as locating of food. In this process, it moves from one place to another place only by a way of sniffing on the ground thereby getting guided into the desired routes. Spreading of human hair collected from local barbershops is an effective and low-cost traditional method being followed by farmers. Technically this indigenous method does have scientific logic which clearly suggests that the human hair in the movement routes of the wild boar gets sucked through nostrils causing severe respiratory irritation.

Due to this the wild boar gets totally disturbed and loses its track by making distress calls, which will ward off other wild boars entering into the cropped area. Several farmers are

extensively practicing this method in different crops and controlling the damage caused by wild boar to the extent of 40-50% 

3. Spraying of local pigs dung solution

Territoriality is very high in wild boars which are being exploited under this method. The dung collected from local pigs will be made into a solution and should be sprayed on the soil to the width of 1 ft around the crop. This will confuse wild boars with a false assumption of entering into the territory of other pigs; thereby their movement will be prevented to

avoid territorial conflict. For sustained effectivity, it is desirable to go 2-3 sprays with 7 days interval between each spray. This method effectively controls the wild boar up to

50% 

4. Erection of used colored sarees

This method also is a farmer’s innovation, which has a behavioral background as far as wild boar is concerned. By arranging used sarees of different colors around the crop will make wild boars assume human presence in the area thereby not preferring to enter into such areas. Even though, not feasible in all situations it has some marginal benefit in the areas of human movement. By using this, the extent of damage by wild boar can be minimized to the level of 30-55%

5.Burning of dried dung cakes

The dried cakes made from local pig dung are burnt in earthen pots. This will ensure the slow generation and spreading of smoke during dusk time. The smoke coupled with the smell of local pig dung helps in sensitizing wild boar about the presence of local pigs. As a result, to avoid territorial conflict, the wild boars don’t prefer to move in such areas and extent of damage by wild boar can be minimized to the level of 35-50% 

6.Arrangement of three rows in “NIWAR” soaked in Kerosene

The NIWAR should be soaked in Kerosene solution for about 2 hrs and will be arranged around the crop in 3 rows by keeping 1 ft distance between rows with the help of wooden poles. Sufficient care should be taken to drain off excess kerosene. The dominating smell of the kerosene does not allow wild boars to identify the crop. This method is generally effective for 10-15 days extent of damage by wild boar can be minimized to the level of 25-45%

6.Arrangements of Coconut ropes soaked in a mixture of Sulphur + Pig oil

Arranged of coconut rope in three rows around the crop by keeping 1 ft distance between the rows with the help of wooden poles can be done. Preparation of solution with a sufficient quantity of sulfur is mixed with local/domestic pig fat oil is done and that mixture should be smeared on the arranged coconut ropes. This mixture generates the typical smell thereby repelling wild boars not to enter into the crop area. For effective use of this method two such applications should be done with ten days interval in between and extent of damage by wild boar can be minimized to the level of 60-80%

7.Planting of thorny bushes and xerophytes around the crop

Different xerophytic species like Cacti sp (Euphorbia caducifolia, E. meriifolia), opentia sp (Opuntia elatior, O.dillenii), Zizipus sp (Ziziphus oenopolia, Z. mauritiana), and agave sp (Agave americana, Caesalpinia cristata) can be planted on the bunds around the crop which will not allow the wild boars due to their thorny in nature. The wild boars after the unsuccessful trial of entry get injuries and making alarming calls, which makes the other animals flee. This method effectively controls the wild boar up to 50-70%

8.Traditional use of local dogs for scaring away wild boars

In endemic areas of wild boar attacks, farmers do follow using of trained dogs on a community basis to scare away the approaching wild boars. In selected cases, this method proved to be effective and sustainable. By using this method control the wild boar damage up to 50%

9.Creation of sounds and light through born fire:

To scare away the wild boars from damaging their crops farmer’s employee methods such as using firecrackers, making sounds through local drums, empty tins, making born fires and shouting. This type of method proven to affective on a community basis in protecting farmers' fields from the wild boars and effectively controls the crop damage up to 40-60% Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad for providing necessary facilities during the fieldwork.

Flashing of lights:

       wild boar have more rods (responsible for visual acuity for shapes) in their eyes than cones (responsible for color vision) to assist with their night vision. The increased number of rods allows them to detect the movement of prey in darkness where color vision would not be useful. 

 Parabraksh is one of a kind solar-powered autonomous flashing light system that is conceptualized and made in India. The product is environmentally friendly and it has a dual charging mechanism –solar and Micro-USB charging with an indicator LED lights. These lights are proven to be effective against wild boars.

Please contact us at info@katidhan.com for more information or reach us on the following links:

Website:     https://katidhan.com/

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source:

http://www.fftc.agnet.org/library.php?func=view&style=type&id=20110805093251   

https://oup.silverchair-cdn.com/oup/backfile/Content_public/Journal/cz/63/5/10.1093_cz_zow099/3/m_zow099f2.png?Expires=1583524896&Signature=lcNGB4BvxAXT7jXiby7kqOcvJyBGr4Gep4VoRJddMUBXHBmUwJ99C4H2o30U2VB-0hTR-eIZfr35n4HXDgHoncqSfq1pQvdxkzKmMRAGVhyEVUPe59G6kGzS~8Gpjvwohc5AnfjVG0-FQCaRafSM84caAv5OtylL7BAUlgt7XqY5HtWqXIvKifl-EHgK-~GwvwYRlvJyfvL-lu6qPtSUt-MbhN50RoSnGkQnzUiDWqXazdNEgWXaQpd8cV0rWFHvxtjRq1Tr6qIIfsm3CDhszbkGg3PNIkJaDAik5ZIWgyh8V7JZJm3Pb1xhisBSu5xywNl8cNDiW5u16wYnu1KpOQ__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAIE5G5CRDK6RD3PGA 

https://www.popsci.com/feral-pig-problem/ 

https://english.mathrubhumi.com/news/columns/faunaforum/a-few-tricks-to-keep-animals-out-of-your-farm-english-news-1.806710

https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/telangana/protecting-crop-by-sharing-it-with-wild-animals/article17342027.ece 

 

Man Animal Conflict

Human Elephant Conflict

Posted by Katidhan Tech on February 03, 2020

 
Forum Post

There has been a drastic increase in human-wildlife conflicts with the animals attacking farms/agriculture land/villages in search of food. Due to this, a lot of farmers are distress as they face huge economic losses because of the destruction of their farm and crops. But I would like to specifically write about elephants here today.

No alt text provided for this image

Elephants are afraid of different predators like lions, bees, chilly plants, etc.

1. Elephants are afraid of bees: According to Oxford University, the largest animal on land is so terrified of a tiny insect that it will flap its ears, stir up dust and make noises when it hears the buzz sound. The findings are surprising because elephant skin was thought to be so thick that bee stings do not make any impression.

No alt text provided for this image

      In the African forest, they were using real bees to deter away elephants. They are storing all bees in a chemical container tube that will harm bees.

2.Afraid of Mice: Theories abound that elephants are afraid of mice because the tiny creatures nibble on their feet or can climb up into their trunks.

3.   Afraid of a lion: They are afraid of the lion alarm sound.

4.   Chilly plants: Chili has the same effect when mixed with oil and smeared on strings or rugs hung on garden edges. Chilies also repel elephants when planted in or around gardens so farmers reap more to reduced attacks from elephants and also sell the chili to diversify their income.

5. Solar fencing: When an object or animal touches the fence, the electric circuit is completed by connecting to the ground, resulting in a short electric shock, which passes through the object or animal. The solar fencing system is popular and sought a system for protecting premises for Agriculture, Security or High-security applications. The requirement of Solar fencing, (which is also called as Power fencing) with Solar backup.

No alt text provided for this image

6.     Message alert System: Whenever the elephant crosses through the sensory device that is placed on the farm. That device sends an alert message to the owner after which the owner will either arrive and secure his farm or move away from harm’s place.

The above method can be used to deter away from the elephant from the agricultural land. But most of them involve manual efforts that are invasive in nature. Apart from the above, we can use technological products for the elephants that can deter them away and noninvasive in nature.

a.  Flashing of lights: The elephants have pretty sensitive rods as well (the higher density of rods in the retina, the more sensitive to light one can be), so elephants do a good job when it comes to night vision compared to humans.

     The eyesight of an elephant is not as far-reaching as a human’s eyesight but its sense of smell is unparalleled. Elephants are color-blind compared to humans. In daylight, elephants are dichromic; meaning they have two kinds of color sensors in their retina: one type of cone for reds and another for green. Humans have three kinds of cones: Red, Blue, and Green referred to as tri chromic.

b.  Buzzing bee audio sound: we can use sounds of bees to deter away from the elephants from the agricultural land.

No alt text provided for this image

Parabraksh is one of a kind solar-powered autonomous flashing light system, that is conceptualized and made in India. The product is environmentally friendly and it has dual charging mechanism solar and MicroUSB charging with an indicator LED lights. 

 

Parabraksh

Please contact us at info@katidhan.com for more information or reach us on the following links.

https://katidhan.com/

https://www.facebook.com/katidhan/

https://www.linkedin.com/company/katidhan/

YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTv9k4aiKT8Onv2JJ-iSsZA

Man Animal Conflict

Human elephant conflict

Posted by Susan Sharma on September 28, 2018

 
Forum Post

Shaleen Attre is currently pursuing an MSc in Conservation and International Wildlife Trade at the Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology at University of Kent in Canterbury, UK.  Hear her talk about the complex nature of elephant conservation in India.

 

 

The specter of this gentle animal turning into a threat to humans needs to be taken seriously by conservationists. Wildlife Research and Conservation Society(WRCS) of Pune has been doing some work at grass roots to mitigate this issue. Read about this at

 

 

http://indianwildlifeclub.com/ezine/view/details.aspx?cid=25&m=6&y=2016

http://indianwildlifeclub.com/ezine/view/details.aspx?aid=1186

 

 

See the short film at

 

https://youtu.be/Z08hNz-Puok

 

 

Man Animal Conflict

Project Leopard

Posted by Susan Sharma on April 10, 2018

 
Forum Post
Has Rajasthan found an answer to man-leopard conflict?  On a visit to Jhalana Forest Reserve near Jaipur, I was impressed by the efforts of the Forest Department to keep the leopards, numbering about 20, within the Reserve by ensuring adequate water and prey base.

Watch this video I made during the visit on 30th and 31st March 2018.

Jhalana Forest Reserve-Where Leopard is King

Man Animal Conflict

Poshfoundation.inWe at Posh understand the concern you have for animals and share your value systems when it comes to helping the animals in distress. In case of emergencies time and information is of essence, Posh team is dedicated to assist you in case

Posted by Aditi Badam on November 14, 2015

 
Forum Post
POSH FOUNDATION is a Delhi NCR based NGO actively involved in Animal welfare and awareness related issues.
https://www.facebook.com/poshfoundation.in

We at Posh understand the concern you have for animals and share your value systems when it comes to helping the animals in distress. In case of emergencies time and information is of essence, Posh team is dedicated to assist you in case of emergencies and we strive to improve our response systems to minimize the discomfort to the animal in distress.
Posh foundation is gearing up to optimize the rescue efforts and at present our efforts are concentrated in assisting in rescue of animals in distress in :

Noida,
G. Noida ,
Ghaziabad 
East Delhi
South Delhi

Rescue operations are a joint effort and it involves various stake holders of which the most important stakeholder is the person who is calling for help…YOU. Your call is very important to us and we would try our best to reach you in the shortest time possible.

Man Animal Conflict

Man-elephant conflict

Posted by Susan Sharma on May 01, 2015

 
Forum Post
Conservationist Ananda Kumar, who created an SMS warning system to help workers live safely among elephants wins global recognition.

“It’s very difficult to make out elephants in the dark. It’s a huge animal and looks like a rock and will be standing very still when they notice people.” On the Valparai, high in India’s Western Ghats, tea and coffee companies have flattened 221 sq km of prime rainforest for their plantations. The cleared land is now home to 70,000 workers, who live surrounded on all sides by the rugged, deeply forested Anamalai (Tamil for ‘elephant hills’).

“Elephants are strongly related to their ranges, this is scientifically established. It’s a part of their home, which is lost to plantations because of historical exploitation,” said Kumar, who has spent a decade working on a system of text messages, television alerts and warning lights that keep track of elephants. The programme won the Whitley award for its novel and pragmatic approach to the elephant-human conflict, which kills 400 people and more than 100 elephants across India every year. 
 (courtesy report in The Hindu)

Watch a short film on the innovation made by Dr.Ananda Kumar

Man Animal Conflict

Tips to shoo away monkeys

Posted by Susan Sharma on January 25, 2014

 
Forum Post
Tips to shoo away monkeys

How to deal with monkeys
  • Do not cross the path between a mother and her infant
  • Do  not irritate or tease monkeys.   Leave them alone and they will leave you alone.
  • Be light footed while passing through a monkey group i.e. do not run.
  • Do not go near a dead or wounded monkey.
  • Do not feed monkeys.  If anybody found feeding monkeys, necessary legal action shall be initiated.
  • In case a monkey collides with your vehicle,(two wheelers especially) do not stop there.
  • Do not get scared if a monkey makes a'Kho-Kho' noise as normally it is a bluff.  Ignore the monkey and walk away calmly.
  • Do not ever hit any monkey.   Keep hitting the ground with a big stick to make monkeys leave your house or garden.
  • Presence of big dogs in premises makes monkeys leave the area.
  • Monkeys are scared of snakes.  Keep real looking plastic snakes at roof tops or boundary wall of your house. 
  • Loud noise, bursting of crackers or their sound track will force monkeys to keave any premises. 
  • If a monkey tries to touch you, gently put an object or board firmly between you and monkey.Do not make direct eye contact with monkeys
Issued in public interest by Forests and Wildlife Department Chandigarh administration.
 

Man Animal Conflict

An Elephant in my Garden

Posted by Susan Sharma on February 03, 2013

 
Forum Post
"Most of the conservation focus in India is on protected areas, based on the idea that people and wildlife cannot coexist. But while peddling this theory to try and push for more human-free areas, conservationists are writing off the majority of wildlife that live out of protected areas and alongside people. This is also closely linked to the history of the conservation movement in India and other parts of the world, and the urban elite now dominating it.
It’s time for NGOs and state forest departments to stop imitating western conservation ideas, and look at what our own culture has to offer. A good starting point is to perhaps start incentivising tolerance, whereby communities are possibly subsidised for not planting conflict-prone crops, or better protecting their immediate surroundings from animals.
..................
Our research attempted to understand the differences between communities, all living in the same region (within 500 m of the boundary of the Mudumalai tiger reserve) and interacting with the same wildlife. We interviewed 250 people from three tribal communities"— ..................

Read More at
http://www.thesholatrust.org/an-elephant-in-my-garden/

Man Animal Conflict

The Blackbucks of Koppal District

Posted by Krishna Kulkarni on November 01, 2012

 
Forum Post

In this blog its about the Blackbucks (a species of antilopes) in and around the Koppal district of Karnataka, the place where I hail from.

A Blackbuck in dry grasses.

    Now these Blackbucks (Antilope cervicapra) are a species of Antilopes native to the Indian sub-continent. These have been classified as endangered by IUCN since 2003. Blackbuck is the only living species of genus Antilope. Today, the blackbuck population is confined to areas in Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, with a few small pockets in central India.

Female ones can be identified without horns.

 

         There are about a few thousands of blackbucks found in Koppal and Yelburga taluqs(sub-districts) about 15km away from Koppal district. These herd of blackbucks graze in a group of 5 to 20 individuals in the dry grasses near Koppal. Though these are prohibited against hunting and poaching, occasionally these are hunted down for their flesh and skin. The only natural predators of these blackbucks are wolves other than man. The main food of these animals is the leaves of thorny shrub, Prosopis juliflora found abundant through out the district.

         The most of area in which these animals graze is black soil. These herds are found nearby small streams and more often graze into the crops of nearby villagers. The people have found it tough to avoid them from grazing into the fields. There has been a loss of Rs. 1 crore to the farmers in the year 2010. However the farmers do no harm to these antilopes instead they request the Forest Dept. Officials to shift these herbivores to nearby sanctuaries and save their crops.

         However, since there is no or very less forest land in the Koppal district, it is not possible to shift them. Also the blackbucks are sensitive animals and they may die of shock if they are tranquilized and physically shift them to nearby sanctuaries. Since there is no forest land in Koppal district, the department may require around 400-500 acres to set up a blackbuck sanctuary. However there are no plans to setup a sanctuary as it involves a long process like huge funds to buy agriculture land from farmers and taking permission from the state and union governments.

 

        However the union and state governments are not in a mood to take a positive step.

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